The Glossary contains those terms that will be found throughout the text.
Apostolic United Brethren – or AUB, the second largest, organized fundamentalist group in the Intermountain West. The corporate name is The Corporation of the Presiding Elder of Apostolic United Brethren. AUB claims 10,000 members but a more accurate figure would be 7000.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: – Also known as the LDS Church, the membership of which, comprises the better part of Mormonism, or those who believe in Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon. The LDS Church represents orthodox Mormonism, not necessarily because its current doctrines are orthodox per se, that is original, but because it is the most accepted form of Mormonism. Over the years, through trail and error, the LDS Church has modified and suspended many doctrines and teachings until it is the family orientated, morally sound and patriotic religion it now portrays. The Church claims over 12 million members.
The corporate name is Corporation of the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Coercion: Force, duress, compelling a person to do something they would otherwise not do.
Cognitive Dissonance: Cognitive Dissonance is a psychological “defense mechanism” that we all use to alleviate conflict, the resulting stress and hopefully give stability, security, meaning and purpose to life. It can be good or bad depending upon one’s cultural foundation and priorities. Cognitive dissonance is a ubiquitous Darwinian response meaning it is common in all cultures and societies. The following quote was taken from the Internet:“According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance. In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior.”Doctrine & Covenants – Considered the law book of Mormonism. It is a compilation of those revelations received by Joseph Smith that have been canonized by the LDS Church, or are considered scripture. The D&C helps define Mormonism. The D&C contains 136 Sections, the last entry, not a Section, is entitled, Official Declaration. See Official Declaration and Section 132.
Excommunication/Disfellowshipment: According to Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, [Excommunication is] “the highest punishment which the Church can impose upon its members…. This consists in cutting the person off from the Church so that he is no longer a member. Every blessing of the gospel is thereby lost, and unless the excommunicated person repents and gains his church status again, he cannot be saved in the celestial kingdom.”
In severe cases the excommunicated person may be “delivered unto the buffetings of Satan unto the day of redemption.”
Disfellowshipment: A lesser punishment. “Under these circumstances the transgressor retains his membership in the Church, but the hand of fellowship is withdrawn, and the offender is denied full participation in the Church and the full blessings of the gospel.”
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: – commonly referred to at the FLDS, which is the largest of the several organized or incorporated fundamentalist groups. The corporate name is Corporation of the President of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
The estimated membership is 10,000, however, the FLDS split into two groups about ten years ago over one man rule and the United Effort Plan, a mutated form of the Mormon United Order. The splinter group, calling themselves, Centennial Park, is located adjacent and across Arizona State Highway 389 from the FLDS twin cities of Hildale, Utah and Colorado City, Arizona. The exact population of Centennial Park is unknown and may very well be part of the 10,000.
Gnosis: A Greek term meaning “knowledge,” or “mystically enlightened,” or “insight into the Divine.” It is the root of the words Gnostic. During the early Christian era there were a variety of Gnostic sects.
Meme: – An idea, artifact or “unit of information” that behaves like a gene in that it conveys instructions, the motive of which is to reproduce itself. Section 132 of the Doctrine & Covenant is treated in this text as a meme that behaves like a virus. Chapter Three is devoted to the meme. Also, see Appendix I.
Mormonism: – A general term meaning all the doctrines, traditions and events that occurred from the time Joseph Smith declared himself a prophet to the present. The concept of Mormonism, as used in this text, includes the good, the bad and the indifferent. Mormonism is a history that includes all the schematic groups like FLDS and AUB that evolved out of Mormonism.
Mormon: – A term used to identify all those who are adherents and who believe in Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are commonly referred to as Mormons. Mitt Romney was considered a Mormon candidate for President of the United States. However, members of fundamentalist groups also consider themselves as being Mormons which creates confusion in the minds of some non Mormons. The orthodox, LDS Church, does not recognize fundamentalists as bonafide Mormons.
Mormon fundamentalism: – Comprises several organized and unorganized splinter groups that think they are preserving the original teachings of Joseph Smith that have been suspended by the LDS Church. The two most commonly practiced tenets that fundamentalist believe they are keeping alive are the “law of consecration,” also known as the “united order,” and polygamy.
Narcissistic Personality: The following excerpts were taken from Dr. Robert D. Anderson’s Inside the Mind of Joseph Smith.
“Individuals with this disorder [of narcissistic personality] have a grandiose sense of self-importance. … They routinely overestimate their abilities and inflate their accomplishments, often appearing boastful and pretentious. They may blithely assume that others attribute the same value to their efforts and may be surprised when the praise they expect and feel they deserve is not forthcoming. Often implicit in the inflated judgments of their own accomplishment is an underestimation (devaluation) of the contributions of others. They are often preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. … They may ruminate about “long overdue” admiration and privilege and compare themselves favorably with famous or privileged people.”
“Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder believe that they are superior, special, or unique and expect others to recognize them as such. … Individuals with this disorder believe that their needs are special and beyond the ken of ordinary people. Their own self-esteem is enhanced (i.e., “mirrored”) by the idealized value that they assign to those with whom they associate.” (Page 43)
Many so-called, and self-proclaimed prophets who attempt to capitalize on Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon exhibit the characteristics itemized above.
Official Declaration: – Is the last entry in the Doctrine & Covenants. It has been called everything from a revelation to advise. The subtitle is “To Whom it may Concern,” and purports to end polygamy in the LDS Church. The proclamation was issued by Church President, Wilford Woodruff, in 1890. Most fundamentalists do not recognize the Official Declaration claiming it was issued as a trick to fool the United States Government.
Plural Marriage: – For the purposes of this text, it is behavior which results from following the instructions in Section 132. Within the Mormon lexicon, plural marriage is also referred to as “celestial marriage,” “the principle,” “the work,” and the “new and everlasting covenant.”
Polygamy/Polygyny: – Mormon plural marriage is commonly referred to as polygamy. However, polygyny is what the Mormon fundamentalists actually practice which means one man and two or more wives. Polygamy is a generalized concept that could mean one wife and two or more husbands, or the other way around.
Priesthood: “As pertaining to man’s existence on this earth, priesthood is the power and authority of God delegated to man on earth to act in all things for the salvation of men. It is the power by which the gospel is preached; by which the ordinances of salvation are performed so that they will be binding on earth and in heaven; by which men are sealed up unto eternal life, being assured of the fulness of the Father’s kingdom hereafter; and by which in due course the Lord will govern the nations of the earth and all that pertains to them(Gospel Doctrine, 5th e.d.” Mormon Doctrine, Bruce R. McConkie)
Priesthood Head/Leader/Prophet: The LDS Church leader is considered by the faithful to be a prophet, seer and revelator. He is also considered the President of the Church. The organized fundamentalists groups have copied the Church format as we see in the official corporate name of the FLDS and AUB. It is interesting to note that each organization is a “sole corporation,” meaning that the president or presiding elder is the sole owner – in essence a dictator or autocrat over the organization. However, he may form an oligarchy or a priesthood apostleship who act as advisers. In AUB men who sit on the prophet’s priesthood council are called “high priest apostles.”
Revelation: According to McConkie “revelation signifies the making known of divine truth by communication from the heavens.” This my occur in a variety of ways: angels, spirits, dreams, visions, magic stones or devices (Urim and Thummim), inspiration. When it comes to revelation Mormon fundamentalist are very innovative. Only the prophet may received revelation where the Church is involved. Individuals may receive personal revelation as long as it doesn’t conflict with the prophet. The whole concept of Mormonism, which purports to be a “restoration” is a result of revelation.
Sealing Ceremony: All ordinances, including the marriage ceremony is administered by priesthood authority. For example, among the fundamentalists a marriage is not valid unless sealed by priesthood authority. Civil marriages are not recognized. That means a women married in a civil relationship is fair game for conversion. In other words it is not a sin to seduce her from the civil relationship and maker her a plural wife, an act that is not uncommon.
Section 132 – D & C: Section 132 is the alleged plural marriage revelation received by Joseph Smith. It is this revelation which commands fundamentalists to take plural wives. It is the judicial and moral scrutinizing of Section 132 that is the primary focus of this text.
United Order: is a form of communalism or communism where members of the order are supposed to have all things in common. Joseph Smith introduced the “law of consecration” as a means to build up the assets of the Church. The United Order is an abbreviated form of Consecration. Brigham Young started up two better known united order communities ( Orderville & Brigham City), both failed. The fundamentalists have attempted several modified versions of the united order, non of which comply to Brigham’s blue print. Among these are the United Effort Plan (UEP) practiced by the FLDS. Another is the Communities of Apostolic United Brethren,CAUB, practiced by Apostolic United Brethren, the second largest polygamist group in the Intermountain West.
Each of these united order-like communities are owned or controlled by the prophet and his priesthood. The “priesthood” owns the property where the tenants are given permission to build on the property. Consequently the people living there are considered “tenants at will.” In other words, if the people lose favor with the prophet they can be evicted without being reimbursed for their improvements. With the arrest and conviction of Warren Jeffs, the leader of the FLDS, the UEP is currently being systematically dismantled by the courts.
INTRODUCTION: A SYNOPSIS OF WHAT THE BOOK IS ABOUT
CHAPTER ONE: POLYGAMY AND RESPECT
CHAPTER TWO: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF SECTION 132
CHAPTER THREE: MORMON POLYGAMY IS GENE-MEME DRIVEN
CHAPTER FOUR: IS SECTION 132 CHRISTIAN?
CHAPTER FIVE: MASS MOVEMENTS AND CONVERSION
CHAPTER SIX: NINETEENTH CENTURY MORMON POLYGAMY
CHAPTER SEVEN: BRIGHAM YOUNG’S Y-CHROMOSOME
CHAPTER EIGHT: A BELIEF IN HERESY
CONCLUSTION: A SUMMERY OF THE IMPORTANT POINTS
APPENDIX I MEMETICS
APPENDIX II REYNOLDS VS. UNITED STATES
APPENDIX III WARREN JEFFS
APPENDIX IV DECRIMINALIZATION